Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows. Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll.
Adobe Photoshop - Wikipedia. For the vector graphics language, see Adobe Post.
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Script. Adobe Photoshop. Adobe Photoshop CC (1. Windows. Developer(s)Adobe Systems.
Initial release. 19 February 1. Stable release. CC 2.
May 2. 01. 7; 2 months ago (2. Since then, it has become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, such that the word . Photoshop has vast support for graphic file formats but also uses its own PSD and PSB file formats which support all the aforementioned features.
In addition to raster graphics, it has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics (especially through clipping path), 3. D graphics and video. Photoshop's feature set can be expanded by Photoshop plug- ins, programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that can run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.
Photoshop's naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. However, in October 2. Creative Suite branding, each new version of Photoshop was designated with . Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were also distributed in two different editions: Standard and Extended. In June 2. 01. 3, with the introduction of Creative Cloud branding, Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model and the .
Historically, Photoshop was bundled with additional software such as Adobe Image. Ready, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Camera RAW. Alongside Photoshop, Adobe also develops and publishes Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, Photoshop Express and Photoshop Touch. Collectively, they are branded as . It is currently a licensed software. Early history. Thomas Knoll, a Ph.
D student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a full- fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six- month break from his studies in 1. Thomas renamed the program Image.
Pro, but the name was already taken. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1. Photoshop 1. 0 was released on 1. February 1. 99. 0 for Macintosh exclusively. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.
Scitex, cost around $3. File format. These include layers with masks, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e. JPG or . GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 3. Gigabytes. Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension . PSB, which stands for .
A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 3. Exabytes. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints (it is not close to a power of two, as is 3. PSD and PSB formats are documented. The . PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe's other apps like Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professional standard DVDs and provide non- linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on, for television, film, and the Internet.
Photoshop's primary strength is as a pixel- based image editor, unlike vector- based image editors. Photoshop also enables vector graphics editing through its Paths, Pen tools, Shape tools, Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command, and Smart Object functions. These tools and commands are convenient to combine pixel- based and vector- based images in one Photoshop document, because it may not be necessary to use more than one program.
To create very complex vector graphics with numerous shapes and colors, it may be easier to use software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as Adobe Illustrator or Corel. DRAW. Photoshop's non- destructive Smart Objects can also import complex vector shapes. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third- party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software.
Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop- compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins (also known as a 8bf plugins), available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well- known companies associated with them: Color correction plugins (Alien Skin Software. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing; painting; measuring and navigation; selection; typing; andretouching.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points.
The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background. Clone Stamp Tool.
The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. You can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.
These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.
The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the . The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line.
The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as .
These dotted lines are called . To set a specific size or ratio, the tool option bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to image tab and select crop.
The regular . Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. Unlike the regular . To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.
It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor move over the desired area. A pixel is the smallest element in an image. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the .
The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. Since there isn’t a starting and ending point, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user. If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool.
This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls. The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool. If the user is on the text layer, then any text across which the tool is dragged will be erased. The eraser will convert the pixels to transparent, unless the background layer is selected. The size and style of the eraser can be selected in the options bar.
This tool is unique in that it can take the form of the paintbrush and pencil tools. In addition to the straight eraser tool, there are two more available options – background eraser and magic eraser. The background eraser deletes any part of the image that is on the edge of an object. This tool is often used to extract objects from the background. The magic eraser tool deletes based on similar colored pixels.
It is very similar to the magic wand tool. This tool is ideal for deleting areas with the same color or tone that contrasts with the rest of the image.
Using simple combination of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and the creation of animations using single images.